Jews and Judaism in World History
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The second half of the book includes essays on the community of Orthodox Jews, the history of Jewish education in America, the rise of Jewish social clubs at the turn of the century, the history of southern and western Jewry, Jewish responses to Nazism and the Holocaust; feminism's confrontation with Judaism, and the eternal question of what defines American Jewish culture.
The contributions of distinguished scholars seamlessly integrate recent scholarship. Endnotes provide the reader with access to the authors' research and sources. Comprehensive, original, and elegantly crafted, The Columbia History of Jews and Judaism in America not only introduces the student to this thrilling history but also provides new perspectives for the scholar. Goldstein University of Michigan , Jeffrey S.
Wenger University of Pennsylvania , Stephen J. Whitfield Brandeis University. Indeed, the strength of this anthology resides in the individual essays, even if some of them make awkward bedfellows. Highly recommended. Choice A thought-provoking The Jewish concept of Shabbat — of ceasing from work for one day out of seven — helped develop the idea of the week, and set society on the path to delineating a specific work-week — and periodic times for leisure.
After leaving Egypt, Moses organized a poll of the Jewish people. It must have been a massive undertaking: he counted , adult men. In these cities, they were guaranteed protection from relatives of those they were accused of killing and were safe from vigilante justice. Alone in the ancient world, the Jewish people proclaimed the dignity of every person: men and women, rich and poor.
Ancient codes of justice routinely contained different laws for people of varying social statuses. The Torah contains one of the earliest systems of upper and lower courts. As the Jewish nation grew after the Exodus from Egypt, their leader Moses found it increasingly difficult to adjudicate all their disputes. Under his guidance, Moses established four levels of courts, from local precincts where people could go to petty disputes, all the way up to high courts that oversaw the lower courts and decided the most difficult cases Deuteronomy The movement for animal rights might seem very modern — current animal welfare laws began to be proposed in Western nations in the mid th Century — but they have their antecedents in Jewish thought.
The Torah and Talmud are full of detailed instructions on treating animals with kindness: we are forbidden from muzzling an ox during harvests this ancient practice was meant to prevent beasts from eating the crops or yoking a strong animal together with a weak one because it might cause undue strain on the smaller animal Deuteronomy When we collect eggs, the Torah instructs that we first shoo away the mother bird Deuteronomy The Talmud even commands us to feed our animals before we ourselves eat.
In Israel, this practice has a powerful spiritual dimension, as well. This practice — which is still followed by many Israeli farmers today — reminds us that it is God who ultimately controls the land and our lives. Even in the present day, some countries impose harsh physical punishments; in Saudi Arabia, people have been sentenced to have their eyes gouged out; Iran has also used blinding as punishment, sentencing a man accused of stalking a woman to have acid dripped in each eye.
Both nations, as well as some other Muslim countries, have used amputation of hands and feet as punishment for crimes. Jewish law, in contrast, codified various categories of monetary damages for a range of crimes, allowing those convicted of theft or negligence to pay off their debt and resume ordinary life. In 64 CE, Rabbi Yehoshua Ben Gamla ruled that every Jewish child aged six and up should attend school, whether their parents could afford to send them or not.
He even mandated a maximum class size — no more than 25 children per teacher. A Shabbat is a gift from HaShem for Jews.
Or rather, thy are prohibited to do so. Humans are commanded to shun cruelty to animals.
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Secondly, it would be better to work up to monotheism. It's a big and lofty concept that many people think they understand. We really need to do a little mental exercise to contemplate what it means for that the creator of the universe wants the created being to do things Dvirah , September 8, PM.
You are correct that monotheism is a "big and lofty concept", but it rightfully comes first because it is the motivator for all the other concepts. You got it all wrong about Shmita, the Sabbatical year for the Land. It has nothing to do with land rotation. It is to teach us that the. Land belongs to G-d, and that He is taking care of us and all blessing comes from Him.
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It is to teach us emuna, faith and trust, in G-d, that the entire Land of Israel can rest at the same time and we will have what to eat and need not fear. There are also chiloni farmers keeping Shmita and they have seen great blessing. The decompressing why " I am proud" to be a Jew is another possible title for this article Several ancient peoples - Romans, Chinese, Assyrians, North Indians, Incas were excellent engineers ie practical bridging, sails, drainage, watermills etc However none create, discover nor pursue theoretical science principles that interchange equally with other cultures to create novel engineering and more principles.
This is because pagans always defer to local spirits and d a emons who being capricious may bless your building at will or not, and that skill is not necessarily transferable to the domain of next doors' spirits, gods and demons. In a monotheistic cultural climate there is only one God and Master so if you unpick the laws and rules in one place and time then they will be true in any other space and time ceteris paribus - everything else being equal in the experiment or project.
That too is why one proof of a discovery or invention is peer review as to whether it can be repeated elsewhere by others and obtain the same result. Hashem gave us democracy and we ignored and chose kings. Thank G-d Israel follows the Torah as a democratic state. We must be careful not to take credit for what G-d has given the world through our people. If we fail to give credit to G-d and try to take the credit ourselves, we become guilty of ethnic self-worship which is a form of idolatry.
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Our great teachings did not come from man, but from G-d. If it were just us, the world would not hate us so. Shoshana-Jerusalem , August 26, AM. You re right that we did not originate any of this, it was commanded in the Torah. The Torah is read with a pointer called a yad hand to keep it from being spoiled. Each week, one section is read until the entire Torah is completed and the reading begins again. The Talmud is also an important collection of Jewish writings.
Written about years ago, it is a recording of the rabbis discussion of the way to follow the Torah at that time. Later texts, the Mishnah Torah and the Shulhan Aruch, are recordings of rabbinic discussions from later periods.
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Judaism: Basic Beliefs How did Judaism begin? What do Jewish people believe? Do not make images to worship. Do not misuse the name of God. Observe the Sabbath Day Saturday. Keep it Holy. Honor and respect your father and mother. Do not murder. Do not commit adultery. Do not steal. Do not accuse anyone falsely. Do not tell lies about other people. Do not envy other's possessions. There are three basic groups of Jewish people who have a different understanding of the interpretation of the Torah. What are the sacred texts of the Jewish people?