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Cet karnataka examination authority government of karnataka. The "z" parameters are the same as those in the "display" task. Observing Practices The installation of the instrument and cables will be handled before the beginning of the run by the mountain technical staff and are not of concern to the user.
SQIID remains on the telescope with power on, under normal circumstances for the entire observing run. Choose a wavelength channel for determining focus preferably K which suffers least from seeing and stick with it through the run to avoid confusion. The four SQIID channels are near parfocal, but differences in sensitivity to seeing which improves with increasing wavelength and slight differences in image quality away from focus can be confusing if you switch back and forth.
Once the star is found, move the telescope until it is centered and focus the telescope, resetting display limits and integration time as necessary, until a tight image is obtained. For optimizing focus, it is best to obtain single images, using observe or go , and analyze the image quality with the IRAF task imexam using the 'r' command.
Remember that it may be necessary to relocate the beam when moving to a new object. An example of excellent focus K channel, 1. Note that the star appears to be positioned at the center of a pixel. FWHM of 1. The rightmost three values at the bottom of the profile image are the FWM from different profile fitting algorithms. Naturally, longer exposures will have somewhat broader profiles. We have since discovered that thorium fluoride is the coating of choice for producing durable wide bandpass coatings. Figure 8 is the radial image profile for a typical single pixel event.
After the temperature of the telescope structure stabilizes it varies rapidly for roughly an hour after opening , the relationship provides an accurate estimate for best focus, which generally shifts towards smaller values as the night progresses. Pick a temperature such as the secondary or the front surface of the primary and monitor that temperature to adjust focus. It is useful to note that there appears to be no backlash in the IR secondary.
At the 4m telescope, nominal focus is with an as yet undetermined temperature dependence. Users may confirm continued proper operation during their run with software interrogation and by comparing dark and flatfield frames against "standard" frames. Detector status and temperature information is displayed with the word status s ; it is also automatically updated at the beginning of an observation.
The cryogen temperature readouts are displayed as temperature based on a generic relationship between voltage at constant current and temperature. The heater power may vary somewhat around the typical value given. However, a significant and persistent departure from this value may indicate the dewar is losing its vacuum going "soft" or that the Closed Cycle Cooler System is losing efficiency.
If this is suspected, contact the instrument support scientist. Finally, sky- or dark-subtracted frames may occasionally show a dark or light potato-shaped artifact about 30 pixels wide. This "Phobos effect" see Fig. This occurs very infrequently, and is apparently a crystal relaxation phenomenon in response to the array being warmed after having been too cold below 25K. This can happen over a span of a few hours when the SQIID electronics have just been powered on after they have been off for an extended period. The array heater power is controlled by the same power supply as the electronics.
Calibration Responsivity Calibration Atmospheric extinction must be calibrated by observations of either a standard star as close as possible to the same zenith distance used for the object or a series of stars that span the range in zenith distance for the observation.
Table 9. Consequently, the flatfield for each channel should be stable at the percent level under normal illumination and global flatfields can be constructed which are viable for extended periods of time. Since direct illumination of the array is possible remember that the secondary mirror is undersized , observations near bright sources, such as the moon, which have atypical illumination, should not be use to determine global flatfields. Observations during twilight will also have illumination atypical of nighttime observations.
Because sky flats provide the same array illumination as real observations, they are preferable in principle to dome flats using the White Spot. It is, nonetheless, a good idea to obtain dome flats as a backup. If one is observing in a sufficiently sparse star field, one may use the same set of observations for the object, sky, and flatfield. Because the sky flats will include the array dark current, it is necessary to obtain separate "dark" observations for subtraction from the sky observations. Unfortunately, what constitutes a "dark" frame for creating flats is ill-determined due to the "memory" effect which accumulates in time.
For example, a series of observations in the dark filter immediately following sky or dome flat observations will show a monotonic decrease in mean value as the "memory" of the relatively bright preceding observations decays over 5 to 10 integration times. By the same token, a series of dome flats following dark or low-background observations will show a monotonic increase in mean value as the "memory" of the higher flux observations accumulates.
One possible approach is to take a larger number of dome flat or dark observations and reject those early in the series, when the change in value from one frame to the next is the greatest. Should one decide to obtain "dome flats", it is recommended that one take exposures when the dome is dark, to minimize the ambient radiation at J and H. The 4-m telescope is positioned by mountain technical staff. Darkening the dome may require waiting until visitor hours end at hr.
The lamp controls at these telescopes are on the LTO console. One should obtain a relatively large number 7 or more of flatfield images for post-processing within IRAF, where floating point arithmetic and sigma-clipping or median combining are possible the latter to eliminate noise artifacts which may appear in a single observation. Since the illumination level differs markedly at J, H, K and PAH, one should anticipate taking data at several settings of the lamps. Within the K and PAH bands, one will be dominated by the thermal emission from the dome screen, and at the PAH band, the lamps are not necessary.
Dark current and residual illumination subtraction require obtaining an identical series of observations with the flatfield lights off for J,H,K or the dark slide in the beam PAH. After subtraction of the "off" or "dark" frame, normalization using, for example the IRAF 'response' task and median combining of these observations should eliminate noise spikes or systematic features in the spectra. To stay within the relatively linear portion of the array response, it is preferable to turn down the lamp intensity and use exposure times relatively long in comparison to the readout time of 0.
The time-dependent dark signal is generally small compared to the sky background for all four arrays. However, higher-order spatial features, such as the gradient on one side of the H channel, are significantly brighter and cannot be neglected when contructing flatfields. Consequently darks corresponding to the integration times for data that will be used for defining flatfield and linearity issues should be taken.
A sequence of 9 exposures should be sufficient. Since the dark current is so low, you will be able to see transient events, such as those due to cosmic rays that can be removed by median filtering. Closing the cold internal darkslide hand crank on the side of the instrument is both necessary and sufficient for taking darks.
The time dependence of the median dark current within [,] is shown in Figure Note that the H channel exhibits an apparently negative dark current at short integration times. Conversion gain is approximately 11 electrons per ADU. Sky Subtraction While the detectors are stable, the sky is not necessarily so.
Under good conditions, sky flux varies only with airmass and at a given position, the sky can be stable over an hour or more. Naturally sky flux increases when you get near the moon. Consequently it is prudent to monitor the sky use imstat inside IRAF to be sure that you have sufficient data to perform sky subtraction on your targets.
CAUTION: One cannot expect to simply co-add observations of faint surface brightness sources and allow the off-source portion of the observations within the detector FOV to determine the presumably constant level of the sky. At some level, defects in the flatfield pupil ghosts, object ghosts, or whatever dominate the accuracy of the results. This deficiency is typically overcome by subtracting off-source observations of the sky, then flatfielding the differences. This improves the accuracy of the detected signal by at least an order of magnitude. In the IR even at JHK observations of all but the brightest stars 9 mag are background limited so that typical diffuse targets such as galaxies are seen at very low contrast in individual frames.
As noted above, the sky background is constantly changing slowly with airmass and on slow to moderately rapid timescales with sky emission so that the contrast varies as a function of time. Since observations are ultimately limited by inadequacies in the flatfield, one cannot simply co-add such observations and obtain a meaningful result; median filtering such data merely selects the middle frame. For example, as the contrast varies the illumination pattern on the array also varies since the relative mix of radiation seen through the telescope optics and that seen directly past the secondary changes.
One must devote a comparable amount of time off-source, intermixed throughout the on-source observations, to provide sky frames; subtracting sky frames on a pixel by pixel basis reduces the contrast problem and allows one to successfully co-add data taken over a long interval of time. When the targets are much smaller than the array, one can accomplish this sky subtraction by moving the target around the array and in effect taking the sky and source data at the same time. The out-of-focus ghosts that lie opposite the optic axis from the primary have the following characteristics: J H K 90 56 pixels diameter 5.
Linearity When a pixel is reset, the voltage difference bias between the pixel and detector substrate creates a depletion region that acts as a potential well for the collection of mostly photogenerated carriers. Electrically, one may consider this potential well as a capacitor.
As charge accumulates in the pixel, the depletion region fills in, increasing its capacitance and that of the entire pixel node. This changes the electrical gain of the system, resulting in a sub-linear voltage-charge relationship, which quickly rolls off saturates when the pixel voltage reaches that of the detector substrate zero bias.
Technically, a pixel will continue to accumulate charge even into forward bias, but its response by that time will be significantly nonlinear. As a direct consequence, pixel response departs from linearity in a predictable fashion for accumulated signals above a device-specific level. Since the total capacitance which determines system gain is the sum of the distributed non-varying capacitance of the system and the variable capacitance at each detector node, the degree of non-linearity is a function of the ratio of nodal to total capacitance. Since key pixel parameters such as quantum efficiency are very uniform, the linearity appears to be a global property of the array rather than pixel specific.
Increasing the bias on a pixel will not only increase the depth of the potential well, but by decreasing the capacitance of the depletion region in relation to parallel components of the node capacitance, will result in a more linear voltage-charge relation. As a result, a bias increase from 0. This comes, however, at a significant cost in dark current, which increases dramatically with bias. Therefore, we recommended a bias of 0. To further improve linearity, we currently use a bias 0.
A second non-destructive read is taken an integration time later. Only the difference between reads is output. In detail, the global reset mode used to operate SQIID resets all the pixels at the same time and then performs a non-destructive read of the array. The first pixel is read out shortly after the global reset and the last pixel is read out 0. The charge accumulated at the time of the position dependent first read is "lost", since its value does not get reflected in the difference. Hence, the reported signal is always less than the total signal on the array at the time of the second read.
The unseen charge can be accurately estimated apart from noise issues on the basis of the timing, but since the amount of unseen charge is position dependent, one is better off not "going there"! Ideally, the data fit are always within the regime where this correction for unseen charge was small. This is not the case, for example, when doing 0.
Relative error for H green , K red , and J blue Channels for mv and mv bias. Prior to , the JH bias was mv. As of January , the JHK bias is mv. Saturation Eventually, a pixel will accumulate sufficient charge to forward bias it to the point where no more is collected, resulting in a condition known as saturation. The reset-read-read address cycle used in double correlated sampling Fig. For a given integration time, the effect of increased flux is a steeper slope of the voltage-time curve.
As the flux increases, the voltage V 2 will eventually saturate, while the voltage V 1 will continue to increase because of the time interval between the reset and the first read; the difference signal will thus decrease with increasing flux. Finally, the detector will saturate in the short interval between the reset and first read, resulting in identical values for V 1 and V 2 , or a difference value of zero. Thus, the double-correlated signal relation with flux is initially nearly linear, then increasingly nonlinear, and eventually decreasing to an ultimate value of zero as one saturates.
These effects are evident in a Saturation Image of the L band, in which the flux increases rapidly from the bottom to the top of the array. These masks include the combined effects of intrinsically bad pixels and instrumental vignetting. Arrange schedules with them in advance for positioning for dome flats, and opening the telescope and dome at the start of the night. The observer should: Verify that the Instrument power supply is on normally on.
If the sides of the rocker show red, the switch is on. Pull it out firmly to engage the detent. Turn on the indicator lights and follow the directions posted there. Turn off the indicator lights when you are finished. The 3 positions dark:red, polarizer:yellow, open:green are equally spaced roughly turns apart. The hand crank can be used to move in either direction and the dark and open stations are larger than the FOV. The secondary should be left ON all the time.
For additional information, please refer to the on-line 2. Instrument power is controlled by the switch on the instrument located on the SQIID electronics box near the power cord. Create parameter set s as needed for observing with ped and eask and save with psave. Create and source any custom observing scripts required. Check that status s gives proper values.
SQIID is now ready to take data. Dome flatfields may be done either in the afternoon before observing or in the morning. Since the temperature and operating conditions for SQIID are highly stable by design, one should not have to repeat flatfields once they have been verified. In any case, it may be desirable to take some short and long 30s dark frames before the first night of observing to verify performance.
Flatfield series should be obtained for each bandpass J, H, K used for observing, as each wavelength channel is serviced by its own array. The high background at L band obviates dome flats - use sky L band flats instead Use an illumination level sufficient to give approximately ADU in 2 s integration time. Higher signals in shorter integration times may exacerbate nonlinearity effects. Read noise is sufficiently low that ADU signal will be background limited.
Obtain 5 - 10 flats in each band desired for later median averaging. Turn flatfield lights off and obtain an equal number of non-illuminated bias images at each setting. SQIID acts as its own acquisition camera. For programs demanding frequent motions, agree on a mutually compatible protocol with the LTO. In the event of multiple observers, only one should serve as the communication link to the LTO. Check the weather from the ground floor level Control Room Shutdown LTO will position and close up telescope and dome [2.
Turn on the indicator lights and follow the directions posted. Alternative parameter named parameter files can also be invoked via setup filename? The last argument in a series is adopted for the rest of the arguments: "1" yields "1 1 1 1", "1 2" yields "1 2 2 2"; "1 2 3" yields "1 2 3 3". When no argument is given, task prompts with current value. The path is is not included in "filename"; if no argument given, will prompt with current value. NOTE: parameters filename, running number, integration time, coadds, etc. Movie frames are saved to disk and should be deleted periodically.
It helps to use a filename like "junk" when using movie. Terminate movie with end [CR] in Instrument Control window. Pay careful attention to the nextpic numbers, as movie increments nextpic for only the selected channel and after movie terminates, nextpic for the channels will no longer match. On the rare occasions when something seems to go wrong, either by pilot error, exquisite software gotchas, or hardware failures, recovery can in many cases be fairly simple.
In particular, hang-ups in the instrumentation software can usually be corrected without resorting to rebooting the computer, which should be considered a last resort. Some situations are not covered in this manual, since the recommended recovery could involve procedures that are potentially harmful if done incorrectly.
In these cases, the user is requested to call for technical assistance from the Observatory staff. Instrument Hardware no signal Internal cold dark slide closed. Check status s for proper temperatures, voltages. Check that green LED in analog electronics box is lit. If the detector has been accidentally deactivated, program will not sense this; observe will work, but return pixel values near zero in image.
Vignetting by external darkslide or dust cover will elevate K background. If the internal polarization anaylzer is in position, the image will be vignetted on all sides with half the signal. Vignetting also results in higher backgrounds in the K and L channels. If either the middle channel 1 or right channel 2 LED is red, there is a fiber continuity problem in that channel. There is a duplicate set of LEDs in the Heurikon DSP box in the computer room reporting on the other two fibers ; it is necessary to remove the front cover to view them.
A bad fiber channel will require the substitution of one of the spare fibers. Call for assistance. Re-booting the computer and cycling power to the instrument or DSP Heurikon box in the computer room are not normal WILDFIRE operations and should not be done without proper consultation, or unless the specific conditions below are valid. These procedures are listed roughly in order of increasing severity, so unless a specific condition has occurred e. An extensive troubleshooting library may be consulted by entering trouble in any active window except the Instrument Control window.
The resulting interactive session can be used to diagnose and correct problems. Type checkfire or! If the "checkfire" task is unavailable, type: ps ax egrep 'PID hkserv' egrep -v grep in a Unix xgterm window logged into either lapis or royal at the 2. If the "hkserv" process is present, the window has been closed, and it will be necessary to locate and open it. If the icon is not visible, it may be hiding behind one of the open windows.
In OpenWindows, one can check the "windows" item in the menu for the status of all operating windows; if the Instrument Status window is present, open it and continue observing. At the "[hostcomputer]" prompt, enter: g sqiid , answering 'y' to question about windows. Verify "settime", "save", and "display".
Reload any scripts with the source command. Continue observing. When you see the "[hostcomputer]" prompt in the Instrument Control window, proceed with the SIMPLE RESTART procedure listed above and repeated here for clarity: At the "[hostcomputer]" prompt, enter: g sqiid , answering 'y' to question about windows and the final question about array activation.
However, if this procedure fails to recover operations, you will need to re-cycle instrument power and follow the Totally Stalled System Restart procedure below. In detail, type checkfire or! Look for a "control" process in state "D". Should you find one, you need to reboot the instrument computer to kill the process. Reboot the instrument computer in the computer: At the 2. At the 4m, in a Unix xgterm window running on khaki type: system khaki reboot. After the reboot is finished, go to the Instrument Control window and type: g sqiid. If the "checkfire" task is unavailable, type: ps ax egrep 'PID wfire' egrep -v grep in a Unix xgterm window logged into royal at the 2.
Should you find one, you need to recycle instrument power and reboot the instrument computer to kill the process. Turn the instrument power OFF before rebooting, using the switch on the instrument. Reboot the instrument computer: At the 2. NOTE: The order of these steps is important. If the dsp box is powered down, rebooting the instrument computer is necessary. Make sure no one else is using the instrument computer at the time.
If only the power to the instrument has been interrupted, perform the procedure above. Whenever the instrument computer is rebooted, the instrument power must be off and the Heurikon DSP power on! Verify that the Heurikon DSP box is powered up. Turn OFF power to the instrument using the switch on the instrument.
After the reboot is finished, continue with the RESTART procedure listed below and repeated here for clarity: When rebooting complete, login as "[telescope]" on the instrument computer, with current password Go to the Instrument Control window and enter startwf. Follow the interactive procedure. Verify "settime". The commands reboot and shutdown give a 60 second warning message to all users. The halt command does not give a warning. The "system" script must be run as the observer account 2meter, 4meter, 36inch for each telescope.
After system has returned, login as "[telescope]" on the instrument computer with the current password. At the 4m, on the khakhi console in the computer room downstairs use the [L1 A] or [Stop A] keys, then enter boot.